A pair of puffins on an Irish cliff

Wildlife in Ireland and is there room for the wolf?

Wildlife in Ireland

In this article, we’d like to showcase some of the amazing wildlife in Ireland, discuss their characteristics, their threats and their importance in an ecosystem. We will also investigate whether there really is room for a return of wolves in Ireland.

1. The return of the Hen Harrier

2. Pine Marten – Ireland’s Rarest Mammal

3. The Irish Hare – A legend in Peril

4. The Persecuted Badger

5. Wolves Returning to Ireland?

In this article, we’d like to showcase some of the amazing wildlife in Ireland, discuss their characteristics, their threats and their importance in an ecosystem. We will also investigate whether there really is room for a return of wolves in Ireland.

1. The return of the Hen Harrier

2. Pine Marten – Ireland’s Rarest Mammal

3. The Irish Hare – A legend in Peril

4. The Persecuted Badger

5. Wolves Returning to Ireland?

The Return of the Hen Harrier

A hen harrier has recently been spotted close to our reforestation project for the first time in 20 years, rousing hopes that the native raptor will return indefinitely to this area of Ireland. A spectacular bird of prey, famed for the differences between male and female, the former is slim, streamlined and mainly silver-grey and white, except for black wing tips while his better half is larger, predominantly brown with fine black markings.

Hen harriers are also notorious for flying very low when hunting, flickering wing-beats followed by short glides and “quartering” systematically back and forth and across its territory in pursuit of small birds and rodents. Harriers are also an indicator species that tells us whether the ecosystem they hunt over is healthy.

A hen harrier flying low over a field. The hen harrier is an integral part of wildlife in Ireland

The Return of the Hen Harrier

A hen harrier has recently been spotted close to our reforestation project for the first time in 20 years, rousing hopes that the native raptor will return indefinitely to this area of Ireland. A spectacular bird of prey, famed for the differences between male and female, the former is slim, streamlined and mainly silver-grey and white, except for black wing tips while his better half is larger, predominantly brown with fine black markings.

A hen harrier flying low over a field. The hen harrier is an integral part of wildlife in Ireland

Hen harriers are also notorious for flying very low when hunting, flickering wing-beats followed by short glides and “quartering” systematically back and forth and across its territory in pursuit of small birds and rodents. Harriers are also an indicator species that tells us whether the ecosystem they hunt over is healthy.

Pine Marten – Ireland’s Rarest Native Mammal

The pine marten is Ireland’s rarest native mammal, with just 2,700 individuals remaining. They like to roam well wooded areas with plenty of cover while their dens are commonly found in hollow trees or fallen root masses. Though excellent climbers they prefer to hunt on the ground preying on small rodents, birds, carrion, beetles, eggs fungi and berries.

A pine marten in an Irish woodland

Pine Marten – Ireland’s Rarest Native Mammal

The pine marten is Ireland’s rarest native mammal, with just 2,700 individuals remaining. They like to roam well wooded areas with plenty of cover while their dens are commonly found in hollow trees or fallen root masses. Though excellent climbers they prefer to hunt on the ground preying on small rodents, birds, carrion, beetles, eggs fungi and berries.

Their greatest threat to wildlife in Ireland, and no more so to the pine marten, has been humans. The loss of woodlands and the persecution of hunters who fear they take eggs and kill game birds have led to the pine marten's demise. Despite years of persecution, numbers in Ireland are fortunately recovering, coinciding with their new-found value as a rewilding species. The resurgent pine martens appear to have rolled back the grey squirrel population, allowing red squirrels to recolonise much of their old territory. Unlike reds, grey squirrels appear to be easy meat for the pine marten.

The Irish Hare – A Legend In Peril

“A hopper of ditches, a cropper of corn, a small brown cow with two leather horns.”

The hare is an inherent part of Ireland’s culture, it is as mystical and mythical as Ireland itself. The hare has graced Ireland’s green fields for 20,000 years, making the hare the nation’s oldest mammal.

Hares rely on high-speed endurance running to escape predation, having distinctive long hind legs and large nostrils to do so. Hares are herbivorous and feed mainly on grasses, field crops, buds and herbs. While rabbits gather in social groups called ‘herds’ and nest underground in warrens, hares are solitary for most of their lives and sleep above ground in their grassland habitats. Generally nocturnal and shy in nature, hares change their behaviour in the spring, when they can be seen in broad daylight chasing one another around in fields.

Once the revered animal of the Saxon goddess of dawn and a sacred creature in Gael mythology, the hare is facing her biggest challenge yet, modern Ireland. Farmers argue hares strip the fields of good grass leaving little for the dairy cows to eat. – One of Ireland’s biggest industries. Though numbers are in decline due to snares, agricultural chemicals and habit loss, there are some signs of hope …at Ireland’s airports, where they are free of predators and farmers.

A  hare jumps through water. The hare is synonymous with wildlife in Ireland
The European badger in a woodland

The Persecuted Badger

On can not discuss wildlife in Ireland without mentioning the misconceived badger. The European badger is a powerfully built black, white and grey animal. It is a nocturnal, social, burrowing animal that sleeps during the day in one of several setts in its territorial range. These burrows, which may house several badger families, have extensive systems of underground passages and chambers and have multiple entrances. Some setts have been in use for decades. Badgers are very fussy over the cleanliness of their burrow, carrying in fresh bedding and removing soiled material, and they defecate in latrines strategically situated around their territory. Moreover they are known to even share their burrow with other species such as rabbits and foxes.

Their greatest threat is the controversial government program which culls 7000 badgers a year to minimise the spreading of Bovine tuberculosis, costing the country 3.6 million a year. Despite the lack of any verifiable statistical data linking TB from badgers to cattle, the culling continues with inhumane snares. 80% of badgers caught are not even carrying TB, and when a lactating female is caught her young are left to starve.

Wolves Returning to Ireland?

Before becoming extinct in 1786, wolves were once an integral part of wildlife in Ireland and Irish culture, and up until the Middle Ages Ireland was often referred to as Wolfland because of its high number of wolves. The Irish landscape was the perfect environment for wolves with mountains, forests and tundra to roam, and an abundance of deer and wild boar.

In recent years there has been a call, by various groups, for the reintroduction of wolves to Ireland. But just how realistic is this romantic rewilding idea? On the one hand, a re-introduction could help manage deer overpopulation, decrease tree damage from grazing, and boost eco-tourism in such areas as wolf watching. However, Ireland is a country with a huge agriculture industry, where livestock can be found everywhere. Though wolves pose no danger to humans, the damage to livestock would present huge problems. Furthermore, as there is not enough wild territory nor corridors in Ireland to accommodate a successful wolf pack, only a small number of wolves can be reintroduced and this small population would have to be extensively managed and artificially controlled.

Two Iberian wolves playing in Spanish mountains ...can we expect to see such wildlife in Ireland anytime soon? 

Two Iberian wolves playing in northern Spain ...can we expect the same in Ireland anytime soon?

Their greatest threat to wildlife in Ireland, and no more so to the pine marten, has been humans. The loss of woodlands and the persecution of hunters who fear they take eggs and kill game birds have led to the pine marten's demise. Despite years of persecution, numbers in Ireland are fortunately recovering, coinciding with their new-found value as a rewilding species. The resurgent pine martens appear to have rolled back the grey squirrel population, allowing red squirrels to recolonise much of their old territory. Unlike reds, grey squirrels appear to be easy meat for the pine marten.

The Irish Hare – A Legend In Peril

“A hopper of ditches, a cropper of corn, a small brown cow with two leather horns.”

The hare is an inherent part of Ireland’s culture, it is as mystical and mythical as Ireland itself. The hare has graced Ireland’s green fields for 20,000 years, making the hare the nation’s oldest mammal.

Hares rely on high-speed endurance running to escape predation, having distinctive long hind legs and large nostrils to do so. Hares are herbivorous and feed mainly on grasses, field crops, buds and herbs. While rabbits gather in social groups called ‘herds’ and nest underground in warrens, hares are solitary for most of their lives and sleep above ground in their grassland habitats. Generally nocturnal and shy in nature, hares change their behaviour in the spring, when they can be seen in broad daylight chasing one another around in fields.

A  hare jumps through water. The hare is synonymous with wildlife in Ireland

Once the revered animal of the Saxon goddess of dawn and a sacred creature in Gael mythology, the hare is facing her biggest challenge yet, modern Ireland. Farmers argue hares strip the fields of good grass leaving little for the dairy cows to eat. – One of Ireland’s biggest industries. Though numbers are in decline due to snares, agricultural chemicals and habit loss, there are some signs of hope …at Ireland’s airports, where they are free of predators and farmers.

The Persecuted Badger

On can not discuss wildlife in Ireland without mentioning the misconceived badger. The European badger is a powerfully built black, white and grey animal. It is a nocturnal, social, burrowing animal that sleeps during the day in one of several setts in its territorial range. These burrows, which may house several badger families, have extensive systems of underground passages and chambers and have multiple entrances. Some setts have been in use for decades. Badgers are very fussy over the cleanliness of their burrow, carrying in fresh bedding and removing soiled material, and they defecate in latrines strategically situated around their territory. Moreover they are known to even share their burrow with other species such as rabbits and foxes.

A European badger in an Irish woodland

Their greatest threat is the controversial government program which culls 7000 badgers a year to minimise the spreading of Bovine tuberculosis, costing the country 3.6 million a year. Despite the lack of any verifiable statistical data linking TB from badgers to cattle, the culling continues with inhumane snares. 80% of badgers caught are not even carrying TB, and when a lactating female is caught her young are left to starve.

Wolves Returning to Ireland?

Before becoming extinct in 1786, wolves were once an integral part of wildlife in Ireland and Irish culture, and up until the Middle Ages Ireland was often referred to as Wolfland because of its high number of wolves. The Irish landscape was the perfect environment for wolves with mountains, forests and tundra to roam, and an abundance of deer and wild boar.

In recent years there has been a call, by various groups, for the reintroduction of wolves to Ireland. But just how realistic is this romantic rewilding idea? On the one hand, a re-introduction could help manage deer overpopulation, decrease tree damage from grazing, and boost eco-tourism in such areas as wolf watching. However, Ireland is a country with a huge agriculture industry, where livestock can be found everywhere. Though wolves pose no danger to humans, the damage to livestock would present huge problems. Furthermore, as there is not enough wild territory nor corridors in Ireland to accommodate a successful wolf pack, only a small number of wolves can be reintroduced and this small population would have to be extensively managed and artificially controlled.

Two Iberian wolves playing in Spanish mountains ...can we expect to see such wildlife in Ireland anytime soon? 

Two Iberian wolves playing in northern Spain ...can we expect the same in Ireland anytime soon?

Sources & further reading

✅ for peer reviewed research

  1. 1. “Can we keep the hen harrier dancing in Irish skies?” – The Irish Times – theirishtimes.com
  2. 2. “Re-introducing wolves to Ireland: could we? Should we?” – Ireland’s Wildlife – irelandswildlife.com
  3. 3. “Can the mid-Holocene provide suitable models for rewilding the landscape in Britain?” -Hodder, K. H., Buckland, P. C., Kirby, K. K. and Bullock, J.M 2009 – Bournemouth University Publications –  bournemouth.ac.uk
  4. 4. “The reintroduction of the white-tailed sea eagle to Ireland: People and wildlife”Eileen O’Rourke 2014, Land Use Policy Journal Vol. 38 – sciencedirect.com ✅
  5. 5. “Extracting culture or injecting nature? Rewilding in transatlantic perspective”Marcus Hall 2014 – Springer Publishing – springer.com  ✅

Sources & further reading

✅ for peer reviewed research

  1. 1. “Can we keep the hen harrier dancing in Irish skies?” – The Irish Times – theirishtimes.com
  2. 2. “Re-introducing wolves to Ireland: could we? Should we?” – Ireland’s Wildlife – irelandswildlife.com
  3. 3. “Can the mid-Holocene provide suitable models for rewilding the landscape in Britain?” -Hodder, K. H., Buckland, P. C., Kirby, K. K. and Bullock, J.M 2009 – Bournemouth University Publications –  bournemouth.ac.uk
  4. 4. “The reintroduction of the white-tailed sea eagle to Ireland: People and wildlife”Eileen O’Rourke 2014, Land Use Policy Journal Vol. 38 – sciencedirect.com ✅
  5. 5. “Extracting culture or injecting nature? Rewilding in transatlantic perspective”Marcus Hall 2014 – Springer Publishing – springer.com  ✅