Rewilding Romania

One of Europe’s last true wilderness areas

written byHannah Kirkland - Conservation Biologist at Mossy Earth

Hannah Kirkland

Romania’s natural world is arguably one of Europe’s last true wilderness areas. Old-growth forests blanket vast mountain ranges that stretch across the country. They offer refuge for European wildlife in an otherwise densely populated and highly developed continent. Wolves, bears, and lynx all thrive here. To protect this landscape and the diversity of species that depend on it from increasing human exploitation, Mossy Earth has partnered with Foundation Conservation Carpathia (FCC) in rewilding Romania.

Habitat Restoration

Though Romania still has much of its forest habitat intact, many areas are under immense pressure from unsustainable logging and exploitation practices. Huge areas of forest in the Carpathian Mountains are being cleared in their entirety, rather than selectively cutting a few trees over a larger area, a much more sustainable practice. As huge swathes of trees are cleared, the soil is left vulnerable to disastrous levels of soil erosion. To restore these clear-cut areas and improve the soil structure, the team surveys the area to assess the extent of the damage, the level of regeneration that is already taking place, and the absence of important species. Once this has been done, trees are grown in local nurseries until they are strong enough to be planted out in the field. Pioneer species are planted first to help restore the soil before a diversity of other species are planted that recreate the original forest composition.

An apocalyptic looking illegal clear cut area in Romania's Southern Carpathians.
Vast swathes of forest in the Carpathian Mountains are being unsustaianbly clear cut in their entirety.

Ranger Patrols

An additional pillar of rewilding Romania is having a team of rangers on the ground. The rangers are recruited from the local community to carry out regular forest patrols in order to protect the old growth forests. Having a presence in the mountains helps protect these forests from illegal logging and deters poachers from illegal hunting. It also helps to connect the local community, who are hired as rangers, with the conservation of their natural environment.

A ranger on patrol in the Southern Carpathian mountains, Romania.
The presence of FCC rangers, patrolling a protected area of what is now 65,000 hectares, has positively influenced the decrease of illegal logging.

Wildlife Conservation

Once the clear-cut areas have been replanted and the trees have had time to grow, they will increase the habitat available for a diversity of species. Romania is home to a significant portion of the species that are threatened across Europe, many of them relying on these forest habitats for survival. The project also helps reconnect isolated forest patches so that animals can move safely across the landscape. To keep track of the species that are present in the region, camera traps are placed across the project area. This also allows the team to monitor wildlife movements, habitat use and behaviour, and can inform estimates of population sizes and whether they are stable, increasing or decreasing.

A European brown bear climbing up a tree.
Romania is home to 60% of Europe's brown bears. There are believed to be over 200,000 brown bears in the world, of which 6,000 of them roam Romania’s forests in the Carpathian Mountains.

A Wilder Future

There are many reasons to celebrate Romania's natural world. But, as the country continues to develop, the old-growth forests that have provided a wildlife refuge for Europe’s sensitive species are increasingly under threat. Through our work with FCC, we aim to restore degraded clear-cuts to healthy, functioning and biodiverse forests. With your support we can protect Romania’s great wild spaces.

Wolves crossing a river in the Southern Carpathians during winter.
Together, let's help restore Europe's last true wilderness.

Sources & further reading

Peer Reviewed Research Section
  1. The Carpathians – Europe’s only true wilderness - The European Nature TrustExternal link
  2. The race to save Romania’s forests: how illegal loggers lay waste to the wilderness - The New StatesmanExternal link
  3. Romania’s biodiversity at risk: A call to action - IUCNExternal linkIcon Peer Review
  4. The Vulnerable Bison: Practices and Meanings of Rewilding in the Romanian Carpathians - Conservation and SocietyExternal linkIcon Peer Review

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