A field technician hikes up a snowy trail through the forest

Tracking Lynx in Romania's Carpathian Mountains

A field technician hikes up a snowy trail through the forest

Tracking Lynx in Romania's Carpathian Mountains

Earlier this year, I travelled to Romania’s Carpathian Mountains to track one of Europe’s most charismatic species - the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). With a field team of experienced scientists and field technicians, I climbed mountains, waded through rivers and hiked knee deep in fresh snow in the footsteps of the elusive lynx. We were there to gather important ecological data that can help us understand how many lynx wander the area and how they use their habitat. We often see the results of this kind of research, so instead I’d like to explain a bit about how this kind of information is gathered. In this guide you will find an outline of some of the main methods used in wildlife monitoring.

1. Romania's Carnivores

2. Following in Their Footsteps

3. Camera Trapping

4. The Big Picture

Earlier this year, I travelled to Romania’s Carpathian Mountains to track one of Europe’s most charismatic species - the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). With a field team of experienced scientists and field technicians, I climbed mountains, waded through rivers and hiked knee deep in fresh snow in the footsteps of the elusive lynx. We were there to gather important ecological data that can help us understand how many lynx wander the area and how they use their habitat. We often see the results of this kind of research, so instead I’d like to explain a bit about how this kind of information is gathered. In this guide you will find an outline of some of the main methods used in wildlife monitoring.

1. Romania's Carnivores

2. Following in Their Footsteps

3. Camera Trapping

4. The Big Picture

Romania's Carnivores

Romania is a wilderness refuge in a continent that has lost huge swathes of pristine habitat and wildlife populations. While carnivore species disappeared across Europe, the lynx, wolf and brown bear were all able to survive here. Today, it has the largest un-fragmented forest area in Europe. Sadly, Romania’s wilderness and wildlife continues to be threatened by habitat loss, exploitation and a lack of proper scientific research. Wildlife monitoring is therefore vital. We need to obtain reliable information, like population sizes and genetics, to help safeguard the future of these species.

Two Eurasian lynx rest on a chilly day in the forest

Romania's Carnivores

Romania is a wilderness refuge in a continent that has lost huge swathes of pristine habitat and wildlife populations. While carnivore species disappeared across Europe, the lynx, wolf and brown bear were all able to survive here. Today, it has the largest un-fragmented forest area in Europe. Sadly, Romania’s wilderness and wildlife continues to be threatened by habitat loss, exploitation and a lack of proper scientific research. Wildlife monitoring is therefore vital. We need to obtain reliable information, like population sizes and genetics, to help safeguard the future of these species.

Two Eurasian lynx rest on a chilly day in the forest

Following in Their Footsteps

Monitoring lynx is extremely difficult because of their elusive nature. A good way of getting around this is to look for clues in the landscape that the animal has left behind. This can be done by 1) following tracks, 2) collecting urine and other genetic samples and 3) installing remote cameras. A typical day involves searching for and following lynx tracks, usually in the snow, until the tracks end, the light fades, or the terrain makes it impossible to continue. Every path is recorded using a GPS so that we can visualise the lynx’s path and analyse the data. This gives us a landscape-scale story of lynx numbers, ranges, and behaviours. On particularly good days, we might find urine, scat (faecal) or fur samples, from which we can extract genetic data and gain insight into things like kinship and sex.

A lynx track is clearly defined in the deep snow
A lynx track is clearly defined in the deep snow

Following in Their Footsteps

Monitoring lynx is extremely difficult because of their elusive nature. A good way of getting around this is to look for clues in the landscape that the animal has left behind. This can be done by 1) following tracks, 2) collecting urine and other genetic samples and 3) installing remote cameras. A typical day involves searching for and following lynx tracks, usually in the snow, until the tracks end, the light fades, or the terrain makes it impossible to continue. Every path is recorded using a GPS so that we can visualise the lynx’s path and analyse the data. This gives us a landscape-scale story of lynx numbers, ranges, and behaviours. On particularly good days, we might find urine, scat (faecal) or fur samples, from which we can extract genetic data and gain insight into things like kinship and sex.

Camera Trapping

Another way into the elusive world of the lynx is through remote camera traps placed in the field. These cameras capture sightings of lynx either through photographs or videos. They’re activated when an object moves in front of the sensor at the front of the camera. Setting up and monitoring these remote camera traps requires a deep understanding of the animal's ecology, an artistic eye and extreme dedication. On several occasions we would walk miles in deep snow to check on a camera with nothing but videos of wind, but when we did get a good shot of a lynx, it was all worth it. In the footage we captured, I saw lynx scent marking on rocks, taking shelter in abandoned cabins, vocalising in the middle of the night, and, a personal highlight, I watched a mother interacting with her two kittens.a

A camera trap captures a lynx walking through a snowy trail in the forest

Camera Trapping

Another way into the elusive world of the lynx is through remote camera traps placed in the field. These cameras capture sightings of lynx either through photographs or videos. They’re activated when an object moves in front of the sensor at the front of the camera. Setting up and monitoring these remote camera traps requires a deep understanding of the animal's ecology, an artistic eye and extreme dedication. On several occasions we would walk miles in deep snow to check on a camera with nothing but videos of wind, but when we did get a good shot of a lynx, it was all worth it. In the footage we captured, I saw lynx scent marking on rocks, taking shelter in abandoned cabins, vocalising in the middle of the night, and, a personal highlight, I watched a mother interacting with her two kittens.a

A camera trap captures a lynx walking through a snowy trail in the forest
White trees covered in snow stand amongst the white clouds on a wintery day in the Carpathian Mountains

The Big Picture

Tracking wildlife is an incredible experience, but it also provides rigorous scientific data that can be used to answer important research questions and help conserve the Eurasian lynx. Carnivores like the lynx face severe threats in an overcrowded world. In Europe, many populations have experienced dramatic declines, but some are already making a comeback. To carry out good conservation and habitat restoration work, it is vital that we monitor wildlife distributions, habitat use, and other ecological measures. This is the kind of valuable work being done by Foundation Conservation Carpathia and the LIFE Lynx project that I was involved in.

White trees covered in snow stand amongst the white clouds on a wintery day in the Carpathian Mountains

The Big Picture

Tracking wildlife is an incredible experience, but it also provides rigorous scientific data that can be used to answer important research questions and help conserve the Eurasian lynx. Carnivores like the lynx face severe threats in an overcrowded world. In Europe, many populations have experienced dramatic declines, but some are already making a comeback. To carry out good conservation and habitat restoration work, it is vital that we monitor wildlife distributions, habitat use, and other ecological measures. This is the kind of valuable work being done by Foundation Conservation Carpathia and the LIFE Lynx project that I was involved in.

The Big Picture

Tracking wildlife is an incredible experience, but it also provides rigorous scientific data that can be used to answer important research questions and help conserve the Eurasian lynx. Carnivores like the lynx face severe threats in an overcrowded world. In Europe, many populations have experienced dramatic declines, but some are already making a comeback. To carry out good conservation and habitat restoration work, it is vital that we monitor wildlife distributions, habitat use, and other ecological measures. This is the kind of valuable work being done by Foundation Conservation Carpathia and the LIFE Lynx project that I was involved in.

White trees covered in snow stand amongst the white clouds on a wintery day in the Carpathian Mountains

About The Author

About The Author

Hannah is the Lead Biologist at Mossy Earth. She holds a Bachelor’s degree in Natural Sciences: Biology and Anthropology from Durham University and a Master’s degree in Conservation Biology from the Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology. She has been working in the field of environmental conservation in an effort to protect and restore the natural world. She has extensive experience of working in scientific research, wildlife rehabilitation and communication. Hannah who is also a very a talented photographer, uses her photography to document the natural world with the aim of bridging the gap with the human world. She seeks to engage people in conservation issues and inspire a global passion towards nature.

Sources & further reading

✅ for peer reviewed research

  1. 1. “The Carpathians – Europe’s only true wilderness” – The European Nature Trust 2014 – youtube.com
  2.  
  1. 2. “Romania’s biodiversity at risk: A call to action” – IUCN 2013 – iucn.org

3. “An evaluation of structured snow-track surveys to monitor Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx populations" - JDC Linnell et al. 2007. Wildlife Biology - Vol 13, Issue 4 - bioone.org ✅

5. “Rewilding Romania” – Mossy Earth 2019 - mossyearth

✅ for peer reviewed research

  1. 1. “The Carpathians – Europe’s only true wilderness” – The European Nature Trust 2014 – youtube.com
  2.  
  1. 2. “Romania’s biodiversity at risk: A call to action” – IUCN 2013 – iucn.org
  2.  
  3. 3. “An evaluation of structured snow-track surveys to monitor Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx populations" - JDC Linnell et al. 2007. Wildlife Biology - Vol 13, Issue 4 - bioone.org
  4.  
  5. 4. “Rewilding Romania” – Mossy Earth 2019 - mossyearth