Eco Friendly Makeup

Sustainable, Plastic Free & Home Made Cosmetics

written by

Natalie Fox

Makeup has been used throughout the ages to mask imperfections, create “looks”, enhance facial features and generally beautify; but at what price to the environment and your health?

A big bucks industry but inherently unsustainable

According to Forbes the global cosmetic industry is worth about $532 billion, and estimated to grow to a market value of almost $805 billion by 2023.  However, with the makeup industry is responsible for high levels of water usage, global emissions and single use plastic; this mass consumption of finite resources currently makes the cosmetic industry one of the least sustainable in the world. 

Recently, evidence of petrochemicals, parabens and phthalates in makeup products has also come to light; questioning many of the ingredients and processes used in cosmetics.  However, awareness and impact of evident toxins on humans as well as the environment, according to “Oprah Magazine”; has paved the way for more organic, Eco friendly makeup brands to emerge and “sustainable makeup choices" are currently trending.

Ladies shopping for cosmetics in New York. The makeup industry is far from sustainable, but the tide is turning.
The makeup industry is far from sustainable, but the tide is turning.

Where did it all start?

Whilst the historical origins of cosmetics lie in ancient Egyptian and Roman times, it was the Hollywood film era of the 1920s that sparked a global industry; technological advancements at the time enabled a rise in production; along with regulation of products.  Companies in the US were (and still are) governed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the 1938’s Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; which was updated in 1960 to account for the growing number of side effects and carcinogenic potential within makeup products. In Europe, the EU has the 2009 “Cosmetic Regulation”. 

Post World War 2 cosmetic corporations focussed on the emerging female market; using advertisements endorsing the benefits of being “attractive” and the global makeup industry has been growing ever since, both in terms of its revenue and negative environmental impact.

1920s' Hollywood actress
The Hollywood film era of the 1920s sparked a global make up industry

Non eco friendly makeup ingredients harmful to health

The Derm Review documents a list of toxins, common in many cosmetic products, and below we highlight three to really avoid.

Petroleum

Goop’s interview with Karen Behnke (author of Juice Beauty) reveals that petrochemicals are incredibly prevalent in beauty products.   They are a huge health concern, take 1,4-dioxane for example; a substance known to potentially contribute to some cancers; it’s a kidney toxin, neurotoxin and a respiratory toxin.  The Environmental Working Group (EWG) found that an alarming 22 percent of all conventional personal care products contain unsafe levels of 1,4-dioxane.

Parabens

Awareness has grown considerably about the existence of parabens within cosmetics.  Parabens are known to be xenoestrogens, i.e. they mimic oestrogen in the body. This has been linked to breast cancer and reproductive issues.  Researchers believe there is a relationship between parabens and tumors. It also appears that parabens can be stored in the body, resulting in a cumulative effect that can damage health over time. While there is currently no scientific evidence to confirm that parabens directly cause cancer, research is ongoing.

Phthalates

Phthalates are substances widely used as plasticizers. Found in almost all polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products, Phthalates have also been used in perfumes, deodorants, hairsprays, gels, nail polish, aftershave lotions and lubricants. They serve mainly as fixing agents so that a nail polish flakes less quickly and a perfume lasts longer.  Phthalates’ effects on humans have not been studied extensively, but they are believed to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) that can alter hormonal balance and potentially cause reproductive, developmental and other health issues.

A lady scratching her back
From skin irritations to more serious health issues such as kidney problems and cancers, are attributed to a number of toxins found in make up.

Take action now

Do you want to have a direct impact on climate change? Sir David Attenborough said the best thing we can do is to rewild the planet. So we run reforestation and rewilding programs across the globe to restore wild ecosystems and capture carbon.

Get involved

Environmental impacts of makeup

Despite scientific research emerging to warn us of the dangers having synthetic and chemical ingredients in our cosmetics can have on human health; there is a lack of evidence on what they do to the natural environment.

Two particularly contentious ingredients are octinoxate and oxybenzone; known for UV ray protection in sunscreens (but which also appear in foundations, hair dye, shampoo, nail polish and lip balms). They have been labelled responsible for bleaching coral reefs by leaching from the skin of sunbathers into the ocean. As you can see, in the Chemicals of Concern list below, all 7 cosmetic companies are yet to employ a policy on these chemicals despite Hawaii’s ban on non reef-friendly sunscreen starting Jan 2021.

Along with octinoxate and oxybenzone; butylparaben has been shown to cause coral reef bleaching, whilst other parabens have been showing up in dolphin and polar bear biopsies.

Another alarming ingredient is palm oil; according to Vogue “its derivatives also lurk in an astounding 70% of our cosmetics, where they serve as emulsifiers and surfactants”.  Of course, we are no longer blind to the deforestation and devastating effects mono-cultured palm plantations have on native rainforests.

The growth of the palm oil industry has resulted in 39% of forest loss on the biodiversity-rich island of Borneo between 2000 and 2018.  Other crucial, climate regulating rainforests are also being destroyed in Brazil, Malaysia, West Africa and other parts of Indonesia; including 43% of Tesso Nilo National Park in Sumatra.  Look for the ingredient: Elaeis guineensis, to know if your beauty products contain palm oil.

An aerial photo of a coral reef. Coral reefs and other marine ecosystems are under threat from toxin ingredients found in non eco friendly makeups, sun creams and other cosmetics.
Coral reefs and other marine ecosystems are under threat from toxin ingredients found in non eco friendly makeups, sun creams and other cosmetics.

Makeup brands to avoid

The biggest industries are located in the US, Japan and Europe; with the world's current largest cosmetic companies L’Oréal, Unilever, Shiseido, and Estée Lauder. If you head over to the Campaign for Safe Cometics you can find a matrix of brands, chemicals and their policies regarding “chemicals of concern”.

Every day, the average woman uses about a dozen products containing more than 150 different ingredients; the Environmental Working Group created the Skin Deep® database as a way to combat serious deficiencies in cosmetics regulation.  They also offer a free guide for choosing safer and more sustainable personal care products. 

Source: Campaign For Safe Cosmetics

Make your own sustainable makeup

Creating sunscreen by using non-nano zinc oxide and oils with naturally occurring SPF has taken over DIY cosmetic blogs such as Wellness MamaMaking your own makeup is following suit; you can now find recipes for cinnamon foundation, beetroot blush and berry lip gloss.

There’s even a recipe for Seaweed mascara.

Plastic Free Mermaid has put together recipes for entirely natural makeup in her new book “I quit plastics”, including Cacao powder bronzer, saying if she wouldn’t eat it, she wouldn’t put it on her face. 

A lady using a pestle and mortar to create her own sustainable makeup and other eco friendly cosmetics.
Making your own eco friendly make up can be fun, creative and theraputic. Give it a go!

Zero waste makeup

Talking about plastics, most makeup products rely on single-use plastic packaging.  The Telegraph reported the global cosmetics industry, generated over 142 billion units of packaging in 2018, most of which being non-recyclable.

Yet the big companies are committing to change.  L’Oreal is aiming to make 100 percent of its packaging reusable, refillable, or compostable by 2025, and to source 50 percent of that packaging from recycled material.

Makeup not only relies on the packaging for its products, but there is also the added step of makeup removal.  Cotton wool and synthetic face wipes are notoriously wasteful; yet there has been a resurgence of reusable cloth or eco friendly bamboo makeup pads such as Marley Monsters and Eco Panda wipes, which can be found at Plastic Freedom. To learn more, we can recommend reading our Going Zero Waste guide.

Eco friendly makeup wipes by Eco Panda and a tub of sustainable, plastic free makeup cream.
Wield your purchasing power and buy plastic free makeup and bathroom products.

Plastic free makeup

Despite being a ban being enforced in many countries such as The US, UK and New Zealand, microbeads are worryingly, still showing up in our personal hygiene and cosmetics products, incuding Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or Nylon. Since it first started campaigning in 2012, Plastic Soup Foundation is now aware of more than 500 microplastic ingredients widely used in cosmetics and personal care products, and has launched a new app “Beat the Microbead” where you can search the products in your bathroom and makeup bag instantly. To learn more, we suggest checking out our living plastic free guide.

Screenshots from the Beat The Microbead app. It's an indispensable tool on your quest in finding eco friendly make up and personal care products.
An indispensable tool on your quest in sourcing plastic free makeup products.

It may be easy to sign off with the sentiment that those who choose to wear makeup should at least invest in conscious, sustainable cosmetic companies, who are purpose driven, with strong social values and environmental incentives; not just economic.  However, these companies tend to have a much higher price point adding to the argument that purchasing “green” beauty products are a privilege rather than a choice.

Moral Fibres, Glow Organic in Brighton and The Future Kept all have ideas and options to shop zero waste makeup, whilst here are some ethical and sustainable makeup brands to look out for that shouldn’t break the bank:

Vapour: plant-powered, organic, vegan, cruelty-free, refillable, plastic free makeup. https://vapourbeauty.com/pages/our-story

All Earth (vegan, natural ingredients, plastic free, refillable, sustainable makeup materials) available from https://www.wearthlondon.com/eco-friendly-makeup/mineral-finishing-powder

Zao: vegan, organic, bamboo packaging, refillable, eco friendly makeup https://plasticfreedom.co.uk/collections/makeup

Lush Cosmetics: vegan, cruelty-free, handmade, ethical, naked packaging https://uk.lush.com/products/cruelty-free-makeup

Thankfully, affordable, sustainable makeup brands have become more successful and transparency is starting to emerge regarding cosmetics. 

A collection of eco friendly, plastic free makeup and personal care products.
Affordable, sustainable makeup brands are becoming more readily available.
Safety Hand

The sustainable makeup how to

Read product labels and avoid: phthalates, parabens, petroleum, octinoxate and oxybenzone
Cross check the brands you buy with the "Campaign for safe cosmetics" scale
Make your own eco friendly makeup
Source plastic free make up and personal care products
Download the "Beat The Microbead" app to find zero waste beauty products.
Recycle, Reuse, Refill
Invest in conscious cosmetic companies, who are purpose driven, with strong social values and environmental incentives
Look out for these top sustainable makeup brands: Moral Fibres, Glow Organic, Vapour, All Earth & Zao

Sources & further reading

Peer Reviewed Research Section
  1. 6 Trends Shaping The Future Of The $532B Beauty Business - Forbes.comExternal link
  2. What's In Your Personal Care Products? - WebMDExternal link

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